ICBM SYSTEMS: OVER 60 YEARS OF TECHNICAL LEADERSHIP
The Atlas program was given top priority to develop an ICBM capable of delivering nuclear ordnance over intercontinental distances. Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (later TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company) was selected the following year to manage research, development and integration of the Atlas program.
In 1954, the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (later known as TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company) was awarded a contract to provide general systems engineering and technical direction (GSE/TD) to the Western Development Division, an Air Force group with sole responsibility to oversee the research and development, testing, and production leading to creation of a successful ICBM.
ICBM development is given the highest national priority, which leads to the Titan ICBM and Thor IRBM programs with Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation’s (later TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company) Guided Missile Research Division (GMRD) providing system engineering.
President Eisenhower authorizes the Minuteman missile program. Previously, the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (later TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company) was selected as technical director and systems engineer for development of solid-fueled missiles that resulted in the Minuteman program.
The LGM-30 Minuteman III entered development in 1966 as an improvement program for the earlier Minuteman missile systems.
TRW (heritage Northrop Grumman company) technical advisors discovered an error in transcribing the gravity measurement survey notes for Vandenberg's Minuteman II launch complex, determined to be the major contribution to a tendency of the reentry vehicles to fall consistently short of the desired point of impact. Through this discovery, the Minuteman II missiles were fixed.
The most sweeping modification to the Minuteman command and control system since its inception occurred with the Improved Launch Control System (ILCS) upgrade. ILCS was needed to take advantage of the Minuteman III’s remote data change capabilities that were incorporated into the Command Data Buffer configuration. Significant changes were necessary to prevent unauthorized data change, including protocol for continually cross checking information and full encryption to ensure nuclear surety.
Intended as a replacement for the Minuteman, the Peacekeeper employed an advanced guidance system, a multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle system and a cold launch system to allow for silo reuse.
The Advanced Maneuverable Reentry Vehicle, capable of autonomous tracking ground targets, represented a significant leap in reentry vehicle sophistication. The first prototype flew on a Minuteman I test vehicle in 1979.
The Advanced Strategic Missile System was initiated to develop countermeasures to possible antiballistic missile systems.
Part of President Reagan’s ICBM modernization program, the development of a new small ICBM was recommended for basing flexibility and greater survivability. In 1983, the small ICBM program office was established as part of the Air Force’s Ballistic Missile Office with TRW (heritage Northrop Grumman company) providing systems engineering and technical assistance.
President Reagan approved development of the Peacekeeper Rail Garrison, a mobile missile system as part of a plan to place 50 Peacekeeper ICBMs on the nation’s rail network for deployment to avoid being destroyed by a first strike counterforce attack.
The Rapid Execution and Combat Targeting System is a modification of the launch control centers that provide continual monitoring and rapid retargeting of Minuteman ICBMs. It integrates communication systems and weapon systems into a single console and allows configuration and targeting data without need for manual data input.
The Minuteman III Guidance Replacement Program, approved in 1992, was part of a Department of Defense initiative to extend the life of the weapon system through the year 2020. The Single Reentry Vehicle was initiated to allow strategic planners greater flexibility in meeting warhead reductions mandated by arms limitation treaties.
The ICBM program structure transitioned from a group of associate contractors reporting to an Air Force System Program Office, to a team of subcontractors reporting to a single prime integration contractor—known as the ICBM Prime Integration Contract (IPIC). TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company, competed and won the multibillion dollar contract as prime integration contractor supporting ICBM sustainment and modernization from January 1998 to June 2016, tasked with ensuring around the clock mission readiness for the entire weapon system.
Under the ICBM Prime Integration Contract, TRW was responsible for the Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network that provides secure, high fidelity, jam resistant and survivable communications links between the National Command Authorities and the Strategic Nuclear Forces. Another program started the same year was the Propulsion Replacement Program to extend the life of the Minuteman III operational force by replacing the solid propellant propulsion subsystems.
TRW awarded contract to refurbish the Minuteman III stage four rocket engine, known as the Propulsion System Rocket Engine, to extend its service life through the year 2020.
TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company, awarded contract for the Safety Enhanced Reentry Vehicle program to deploy an improved reentry vehicle on the Minuteman III, transferring Peacekeeper reentry vehicles onto the Minuteman III to enhance safety and maintain reliability. TRW awarded contract for system design and development of the ICBM Rapid Execution and Combat Targeting Service Life Extension Program to upgrade the launch command centers that control the Minuteman III.
TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company, awarded a contract for the environmental control system program to replace the existing air conditioning, heating and ventilation system of the launch facilities and missile alert facilities with a system that will be reliable and supportable through 2020.
TRW, a heritage Northrop Grumman company, awarded a contract for the ICBM Cryptographic Upgrade that initially involved replacing the cryptovariable used to authenticate and encrypt data moving through the Hardened Intersite Cable System between launch control centers and launch facilities.
Northrop Grumman awarded a contract to design, develop, test and qualify a replacement payload transporter system for the nation’s ICBM weapon system. The payload transporter system removes and replaces Minuteman guidance and control systems, propulsion system rocket engines, and reentry systems in a controlled environment between the launch facility and the Missile Support Base.
Northrop Grumman awarded a contract for the operational and sustainment activities of Minuteman III ICBM Ground Subsystems to include weapon system analyses, system and subsystems assessment, and technical advisement and assistance to ensure security, surety and reliability.
Today, Northrop Grumman is the industry lead on ICBM’s Ground Subsystems Support Contract, performing sustainment, development, production and deployment of hardware and system modifications for Ground and Airborne Launch Control Systems, launch facilities and associated infrastructure. These hardware and software modifications extend the life of the 450 Minuteman launch facilities and 45 launch control facilities for command and control of 400 deployed ICBMs across five states, protecting our nation, assuring our allies and deterring our enemies.
Northrop Grumman is one of two companies maturing designs for the Ground Based Strategic Deterrent program to develop the nation's next ICBM system.