Laser and Non-linear Optical Crystals

Northrop Grumman SYNOPTICS is the world's leading manufacturer of synthetic crystals and optical components used primarily in the solid-state laser industry.

Er:YAG (2940 nm)

Material Parameters
Host: ​Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Y3AI5O12)
Dopant: ​Erbium (Er3+)
Dopant Concentration: 50Atomic% (~7x1021cm-3)
​Orientation: ​[111] crystallographic directions (±5°)
Wavefront Distortion: ​1/2 wave per inch of length
End Configuration​ ​
Flatness:​ ​within λ/10 wave at 633nm wavelength
Parallelism: within 30seconds of arc
Perpendicularity: within 5minutes of arc
Surface Quality: scratch-dig 10 - 5 per MIL-O-13830A
Anti-Reflection End Coatings
Reflectivity: less than 0.25% at 2.94microns
Adhesion and Durability: meets MIL-C-48497A standards
Pulsed Damage Threshold: greater than 10J/cm2
Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

Nd:YAG (1064 nm)

High Gain, Low Threshold, High Efficiency,
Low Loss at 1.06µm, High Optical Quality,​
Good Mechanical and Thermal Properties
Ordering Options and Specifications​
​%Nd Concentration Range (±0.1%): ​0.6% - 1.3%
Wavefront Distortion
(per inch of rod length):
​Standard Grade = l/4
Opto-Lase Grade = l/16
End Face Parallelism: ​< 10arc seconds
Extinction Ratio​: ​25dB Minimum
Material Properties (1% Nd)
​Formula: ​Y2.97Nd0.03Al5O12
Crystal Structure:
​Cubic [111]
Moh Hardness:
8 - 8.5
Melting Point:
​1950°C (3540°F)
Thermal Conductivity: ​0.14Wcm-1K-1
Thermal Expansion:
dn/dT: ​7.3x10-6oC-1
Index of Refraction: 1.8197 at 1.0mm
Poisson Ratio:
Fluorescent Lifetime: 230µs
Cross Section:
Young's Modulus:
Thermal Shock Resistance: ​790Wm-1
Absorption Spectrum - 1% Nd-doped YAG
Absorption Spectrum - 0.62% Nd-doped YAG
Data Sheet

Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG (2080 nm)

CTH:YAG Advantages​ ​
High-efficiency 2µm source​
Laser diode sources can pump the strong 780nm Tm3+ ion absorption line​
Operates in a relatively eye-safe wavelength range​
Ordering Options and Specifications​​
​%Cr Concentration: ​0.85%
%Tm Concentration:​​ 5.9%
%Ho Concentration:
Wavefront Distortion (per inch of rod length):​ ​< l/2
End Face Parallelism:
​< 30arc seconds
Material Properties
Formula:​ ​Cr3+, Tm3+, Ho3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal Orientation:
Cubic [111]
Index of Refraction:
​1.80 at 2080nm
Fluorescence Lifetime:
Emission Cross Section2:
Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

Cr, Er:YSGG (2940 nm)

Ordering Options and Specifications​ ​
%Er Concentration:
%Cr Concentration:
Wavefront Distortion (per inch of rod length):
End Face Parallelism:
​30arc seconds
Material Properties​ ​
​Formula Y2.93Sc1.43Ga3.64O12
Crystal Structure
​Moh Hardness ​8
Thermal Conductivity ​8Wm-1K-1
​dn/dT2 ​12x10-6K-1
Index of Refraction​ ​​1.92 at 1mm
Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

Nd:YLF (1047nm and 1053nm)

Low Thermal Lensing, Large Fluorescence, Linewidth, Birfringent,
High Power, Short Pulse, Amplifiers​​
Ordering Options and Specifications​ ​
%Nd Concentration Range (±0.2%)​: ​​1%, 1.5%, or 2.0%
Wavefront Distortion (per inch of rod length):​​ l/4
End Face Parallelism:​ ​< 10 arc seconds
Material Properties​ ​
Crystal Structure:
Growth Direction:
​Along a axis [100]
Moh Hardness:
4 - 5
Melting Point:
Thermal Conductivity:
Heat Capacity:
0.79Jg-1 K-1
Thermal Expansion:
(x 10-6 °C-1)
​13 (along a axis)
8 (along c axis)
Index of Refraction at 633 nm:
1.453 (e ray) 1.476 (o ray)
Index of Refraction at 1064 nm:
​1.448 (e ray) 1.470 (o ray)
Young's Modulus:
Poisson's Ratio:
Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

For more information contact the Sales Team: E-mail | (704) 588-2340

Alexandrite - ALLEXITE (710 nm - 800 nm)

Ordering Options & Specifications ​
%Cr Concentration: ​0.13% (0.10% to 0.20% available)
​Wavefront Distortion (per inch of rod length): l/2
​End Face Parallelism: ​< 30arc seconds
Material Properties
​Formula: ​Be(Al1-xCrx)2O4
Crystal Structure:
Unit Cell Dimensions (Å)​ ​5.476(a) x 9.404(b) x 4.427(c) per ASTM 10-32
Thermal Expansion (x 10-6 °C-1):
5.9(a) x 6.1(b) x 6.7(c)
Index of Refraction (at 750 nm):
1.7367(a) x 1.7241(b) x 1.7346(c)
Melting Point:
Vickers Hardness:
Thermal Conductivity:
Young's Modulus:
Thermal Shock Resistance:
35 - 74W/cm

Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

Ruby (694 nm)

Structural & Thermal Properties
Formula: ​Cr3+: Al2O3
​Crystal System: ​Trigonal
​Unit Cell Dimensions (as if hexagonal) ​a = 4.785Å
c = 12.99Å
X-Ray Density: ​3.98g/cm3
​Melting Point: ​2040°C
​Thermal Expansion: at 323 K: ​┴ c5x10-6K-1 || c6.7x10-6K-1
Thermal Conductivity: 300K: ​28W/m•K
Hardness: ​Mohs: 9, Knoop: 2000kgmm-2
​Young's Modulus: ​345GPa
​Specific Heat: at 291K: ​761Jkg-1K-1
​Thermal Stress Resistance parameter, RT: ​34W/cm
General Specifications ​
Diameter Tolerance: ​+0.000"/-0.002"
​​Chamfer: 0.005"±0.003" @ 45°
​Barrel Finish: ​30 ± 5μinches
Perpendicularity: within 5arcminutes
​Parallelism: 30arc - seconds or less
​Rod End Face Flatness: within λ/10 wave at 632nm wavelength
​Surface Quality: ​10 - 5 scratch-dig per MIL-O-13830A
​Wave Front Distortion: less than 1/2 wave per inch of length (measured at 1micron)
​Standard Coating: Anti-Reflection where R < 0.25% @ 694nm
Laser rod orientation: 60±5° from the c-axis

Absorption Spectrum
Data Sheet

Ti:Sapphire – Ti: Al2O3

Structural & Thermal Properties​
Formula: ​Ti3+:Al2O3
Crystal System: Hexagonal
Unit Cell Dimensions (as if hexagonal)​ ​a = 4.759Å
c = 12.99Å
X-Ray Density: 3.98g/cm3
​Melting Point: 2050°C​
Thermal Expansion: at 323 K ┴ c5x10-6K-1 || c6.6x10-6K-1
​Thermal Conductivity: 300K ┴ c30W/m•K
|| c32W/m•K​
Hardness: Mohs: 9, Knoop: ┴ c2200kgmm-2
|| c1900kgmm2
​Young's Modulus: ​345GPa
Specific Heat: at 293K 770Jkg-1K-1
​Thermal Shock parameter, RT: ​34W/cm
General Specifications​
Diameter Tolerance:​ ​+0.000"/-0.002"
Chamfer: 0.005"±0.003" @ 45°
​Barrel Finish: ​55μinches
​Perpendicularity: within 5arc minutes​
Parallelism: 10arc - seconds or less
​Rod End Face Flatness: within λ/10 wave at 633nm wavelength​
Surface Quality:​ ​< 1.5Årms surface roughness
Wave Front Distortion: less than 1/2 wave per inch of length (measured at 1 micron)
​Standard Coating: Anti-Reflection with R < 0.25%​
Optical Properties​
Absorption coefficient (Ti3+), αcm-1 (at 532nm):​ ​0.50 to 6.0cm-1
Figure of Merit, FOM (α532nm800nm) > 150
​Refractive index at 1.06 µm2 no = 1.75449
​ne = 1.74663
Refractive Index Temperature Coefficient: visible wavelengths near 25°C 3 ​13x10-6K-1
Brewster angle: 60.4°
Fluorescence lifetime at 300K:​ ​3.0µs

Data Sheet

KTP (KTiOPO4 - Potassium Titanyl Phosphate)

Applications Features​
Harmonic Generation / Frequency Doubling:
​Optically transparent between 0.35µm - 3.5µm
Optical Parametric Oscillator​: ​High harmonic conversion efficiency
Electro-optic Pockels Cells:
​Damage thresholds up to 1 GW/cm2
Quasi Phase Matching:
​Thermally and mechanically stable
Available Sizes
1mm x 1mm x 3mm minimum, contact SYNOPTICS for maximum size capabilities
Hydrothermal Growth
​Our KTP is grown Hydrothermally to insure homogenous, consistent properties
Material Properties​
​ Crystal Structure: ​Orthorhombic, Space Group Pna 21
Lattice Parameters:
a = 12.814Â, b = 6.404Â, c = 10.616Â
Melting Point:
​~1150°C with Partial Decomposition
Mohs Hardness:
Density​: 3.03g/cm3
Specific Heat: 0.1737cal/g°C
Thermal Conductivity:
​k1 = 2.0, k2 = 3.0, k3 = 3.3 (x10-2W/cm/°C)
Absorption Loss @ 1.064mm:
< 1%/cm
Nonlinear Optical Coefficients (x10-12 m/V):
d31 = 6.5, d32 = 5.0, d33 = 13.7, d24 = 7.6, d15 = 6.1
Refractive Indices @ 1.064mm​: nx = 1.740, ny = 1.747, nz = 1.830
Refractive Indices @.532mm:
​nx = 1.779, ny = 1.790, nz = 1.887
Type Phase Matching:
Type II
Phase Matching Angle @1.064mm: 24° to x in xy plane
Temperature Bandwidth​: 25°C-cm

Data Sheet